pahlavi: first letter of Pahlavi

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Mahdi Dibaiee 2 months ago
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---
layout: post
title: "Introduction to Pahlavi Vendidad script"
subtitle: "Reading Avesta using the old scripts"
date: 2022-09-15 00:00:00
permalink: pahlavi-vendidad-avesta-intro/
published: false
categories: language
author: Mahdi
custom_head: <link rel="stylesheet" href="/css/khusro.css"">
---
Pahlavi is the name associated with a group of scripts used to write Middle Persian and Avesta, ... (better research and introduction)
This blog post requires a browser that supports custom fonts, since I am using the [Khusro Pahlavi font](http://avesta.org/iranian-font/pahlavi.html). If you cannot see this blog post properly, a PDF version of this blog post is available [here]().
# Alphabet
There are 14 primary letters in Pahlavi Vendidad, some of which are used for multiple sounds. First, let's look at each letter of the alphabet individually.
# <span class='pahlavi'>n</span>
Sound: n, v, r, u, û, o, ô, rarely l
Modern Persian equivalents: ن، و، ر، گاهی ل
Description: Joins with preceding <span class='pahlavi'>f, gE, s, a, l, Z</span> and <span class='pahlavi'>G</span>, but not with any succeeding letter. Pahlavi words ending with <span class='pahlavi'>t, c, p, k</span> and <span class='pahlavi'>n</span>, can optionally add an extra final <span class='pahlavi'>n</span>. |
Examples:
1. <span class='pahlavi'>n</span> (û): a conjunction, meaning and, or; و.
2. <span class='pahlavi'>nnn</span> (van): a tree, forest, jungle
3. <span class='pahlavi'>kyn</span> (nêvak): good, beautiful, virtuous; نیک.
4. <span class='pahlavi'>nDXn</span> (nihān): secret, concealed; نهان.
5. <span class='pahlavi'>rpn</span> (vafra): ice, snow, hail, sleet. برف.
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The table below is taken from _Glossary of Pahlavi Vendidad (1953)_ by Dinsham D. Kapadia, which illustrates how the letters of the alphabet mix when they appear together.

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@font-face {
font-family: 'Khusro';
src: url('/css/fonts/Khusro.woff2') format('woff2'),
url('/css/fonts/Khusro.woff') format('woff');
font-weight: normal;
font-style: normal;
font-display: swap;
}
.pahlavi {
font-family: Khusro;
direction: rtl;
}
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